ذکريات رائعة من زیارت الاربعین

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الدکتور محمد فنائی اشکوری

تعریب: س. ر. منصوری

جاء الأربعین و حل الحزن في القلب    فجع العالم لمصاب زینب

أنین أهل السماء یطرق اسماع البشر     تأوه من تفجع صاحب الأمر

للأربعين مکانة مرموقة في الثقافة الشيعية. علی ما نقل إن جابر بن عبد الله الانصاري الصحابي المعروف، بعد مضي أربعين يوماً من إستشهاد أبي عبد الله (ع) وأصحابه، توجه الی زيارة قبره الشريف.

برفقةعطية بن سعد بن جنادة العوفي الکوفي، تلميذ ابن عباس ومفسر للقران الکریم. يقول عطية : وصلنا الی کربلا مع جابر بن عبدالله لزيارة قبر الحسين (ع) إغتسل جابر في شريعة الفرات وارتدی ثياباً حسنة وذهب صوب القبر الشريف ذاکراً الله عزوجل. ولأنه کان ضريراً طلب مني أن اوصله الی القبر. عند ما وصل الی القبر أغمي عليه ووقع علی الأرض ولما رششت وجهه بالماء إستعاد وعيه وأخذ يردّد : يا حسين(ثلاث مرّات)، فقال: لماذا لا تردّ جوابی يا حسين؟ وأجاب هو بنفسه: وانی لک بالجواب وقد ذبحت من الوريد الی الوريد وفرق بین بدنك ورأسك ! أشهد أنك ابن خاتم النبيين وسيد الوصين والخامس من أصحاب الکساء . فوجّهه التحية للحسين (ع) وأصحابه. وهکذا تشرف بان یکون أول زائرٍ لقبر أبي عبد الله الحسين (ع). ذکر هذه الرواية مع الزيارة والخطاب الذي وجهّه جابر لسيد الشهداء، تعدّ من المآتم الحزينة والتی تروی دوما في مجالس العزاء بمناسبة الأربعين Continue reading “ذکريات رائعة من زیارت الاربعین”

Stages of Journey in Islamic Mysticis

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Professor Mohammad Fanaei Eshkevari

Abstract

Mystical journey (al-sulook al-‘irfani) deals with stages and stations of human soul’s perfection in ascending toward God the Almighty. In practical mysticism (al-‘irfan al-‘amali), different classifications are offered to explain the stages and elements of this journey. Some of these classifications show the order that mystics must followed in their practice. Others deal with parts and elements of the journey, which may not have order in time, though they may have a logical order. This paper introduces knowledge (al-ma’rifa), love (al-mahabba) and obedience (al-ita’a) as essential elements of Islamic practical mysticism as logically one follows the other. Knowledge leads to love and love leads to obedience. These trifold elements are in accordance to the three aspects of human being, that is, reason, heart and body and their functions, i.e., cognition, emotion and action. At the end, I compare the suggested classification with some other classifications that are offered in Islamic mysticism in this regard.

Keyword:

“stages of journey”, “knowledge”, “love”, “obedience”, “religious law”, “path”, “truth

Mulla Sadra’s Theory of Substantial Motion

Philosophers talk of two kinds of change: instantaneous and gradual change. Instantaneous change is one which takes place in an ‘instant’ or in no time. In such a kind of change, we witness the extinction of something and the coming into existence of another…. Continue reading “Mulla Sadra’s Theory of Substantial Motion”

The Impact of Islam on European Civilization

The impact of Islamic civilization on the European civilization is undeniable. Muslims’ philosophical, theological and scientific thoughts that were introduced to the Medieval West had a remarkable impact on different aspects of European life. Ibn Sina, Ibn Rushd and Ghazali’s works left a tremendous influence on Western Medieval philosophy and theology. Mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy and medicine are other areas of influence. Some Western scholars in the Middle Age studied Arabic, and translated Islamic sciences into Latin. Through trade and crusade wars too some aspects of Islamic culture were transmitted to the West. Continue reading “The Impact of Islam on European Civilization”

The Theory of Perfect Man in Islamic Mysticism

Epistemologically, Islamic mysticism is a kind of intuitive ontology obtained through a mystical journey. Given this perspective, the real being is the Absolute Being or the Almighty God Who is unique, infinite and absolutely perfect. Among the creatures in the universe, man enjoys a special status. He is composed of a physical body and divine soul. Whatever exists in the world of existence can be found man. Continue reading “The Theory of Perfect Man in Islamic Mysticism”

Imamate in Shia

1_mamzaman01Imamate and leadership of the Ahlul Bayt is mentioned as the most important pillar of Islam. Shia’s believe that imamate is a divine authority which along prophecy has a substantial role.  Regard to Shia theologians, Imam at least has three grand authorities: 1. scientific authority; 2. Spiritual authority; 3. Political authority. Continue reading “Imamate in Shia”

The Concept of the Perfect Man in Islamic Mysticism

Islamic mysticism as a system of knowledge is a kind of ontology or world view obtained through mystical experiences via living a mystical way of life. In this view, the real being is the Absolute Being or the Almighty God, Who is one, infinite and absolutely perfect. The world with all its multiplicity is the manifestation of His names and attributes. Among the creatures of the world, the human being… Continue reading “The Concept of the Perfect Man in Islamic Mysticism”

‘Fajr Decade’ starts; 35th anniversary of Iran’s Islamic revolution

alalam_63526867575755_25f_4x3Every year Iranians mark anniversary of their Islamic revolution from February 1 to 11, as the “Decade of Fajr.” February 1, 1979 was the date when late Iranian charismatic leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned from exile in Paris to Tehran, to a greeting by several million Iranians.

Continue reading “‘Fajr Decade’ starts; 35th anniversary of Iran’s Islamic revolution”

Irfan in Iran

 

The Status of Mysticism and Mystical Education in Contemporary Iran

irfaniranThroughout history, Iran has been one of the influential centers of mysticism and spirituality. After the arrival of Islam, Iran became a center for Islamic spirituality, also known as Sufism or ‘irfan. Many great figures such as Hallaj, BaYazid, Kharaqani, Gazaly, ‘Attar, Shams Tabrizi, and Moulavi (Rumi), are all examples of prominent Sufi figures. For over a millennium and through the generations, these spiritual teachings have been transmitted from great Sufi masters to their students. Continue reading “Irfan in Iran”